Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus [T2DM]
What is pre-diabetes?
Pre - diabetes means your blood glucose levels are higher than normal and if not corrected can lead to diabetes. Good news is that you can prevent developing the illness by changing your lifestyle.
What causes diabetes?
There are many known factors which could be avoided and some factors are beyond our control.
- Non active lifestyle
- Unhealthy eating patterns
- Family history
What are the symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes?
- Blurred vision
- Slow healing sores or cuts
- Itchy skin (usually in the vaginal or groin area)
- Yeast / fungal infections
- Increased thirst
- Dry mouth
- A need to urinate often
How do I manage my diabetes every day?
- Take your medicines
- Keep track of your blood glucose
- Be active, eat healthy food, reduce stress
- Check your blood pressure, your feet, floss and brush your teeth twice a day , stop smoking, reduce intake of alcohol
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus [T1DM]
Does it have a genetic basis?
At present there is no known genetic basis but it may be forthcoming in the future
Is it hereditary?
Not known at present. However there are families with 2 or more T1DM persons or a mixture of T1 and T2DM persons.
What are the causative factors?
No, definite factors have been identified. However, there are certain viruses and nutritional factors that have been incriminated such as early change from mother’s milk to artificial feeding may lead to the self destructive process of the insulin producing cells.
At what age can you get T1DM?
From first year of life - most often at an early stage in life but it can could appear even in teenagers too.
Can you prevent T1DM?
Can you cure it?
No but you can treat it with insulin to lead a normal life
Do you have to inject insulin throughout your life?
Yes – In developed countries, pumps are used to deliver insulin which is more convenient.
How can you get good control?
- Regime of multiple injections or using a pump
- Checking blood at least 2 - 3 times a day
- Healthy life styles - proper nutrition, exercise and reduction of stress
4-7 mmol/l (72-126mg/dl)
5-10 mmol/l (90-180mg/dl)
At bed time
At 3 am
5-8 mmol/l (90-144mg/dl)
What is the most important part of therapy?
Acceptance of the illness without which you cant achieve good control
How can you help the T1DM person accept the illness?
- Join peer groups
- To accept it like any other chronic illness.
If I have T1DM, are my children at risk ?
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
What is Gestational Diabetes Mellitus?
GDM is when your BGLs become high around the 28th week of a pregnancy due to hormonal changes. Early diagnosis is important to have a normal baby. T2DM recedes once the pregnancy is over but can occur in future pregnancy. Mother and child are both at risk of developing the illness.
What increases my risk for developing gestational diabetes?
- If you are obese
- Family history of diabetes
What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
In T1DM, the body is unable to produce insulin while T2DM insulin produced is insufficient or the body is unable to use it properly.
What should I do if I forget a dose of my medicine?
If you miss a dose, do not double the next dose.
Can I take both pills and insulin to control my blood sugar?
Yes, in T2DM combination of insulin and an oral medication are used sometimes.
What might happen if I miss a meal?
Your BGLs may drop suddenly and you may have symptoms of hypoglycaemia. Your BGLs can drop if you exercise excessively without taking a snack.
How do I prevent hypoglycaemia?
- Take your meals and snacks regularly.
- Take a snack if your meal is delayed.
- Always have something sweet to take if you experience hypoglycaemia. Drinking a coke will also boost your sugar levels up immediately.
How do I prevent Hyperglycaemia ?
- Taking your insulin (or glucose-lowering medication) as prescribed.
- Avoiding consuming too many calories (i.e., sugary beverages)
- Consuming the right types and amounts of carbohydrates.
- Controlling stress.
- Staying active (exercising)
Can the complications of diabetes be prevented?
Yes with good blood glucose control and annual screening for complications.